Prime Editing — The Future of Gene Editing

New “Prime Editing” Method Makes Only Single-Stranded DNA Cuts

Basic Knowledge

  1. What is a Genome? A genome is the entire genetic code of an organism including an organism’s genes and the Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) code it is made of.
  2. What is the Genetic Code? The genetic code is simply a set of rules in which information ciphered in RNA or DNA sequences are converted into proteins (amino acid) by living cells
  3. What are Amino Acids? Amino acids are the basic building blocks of all proteins.
  4. What is a Nucleic Acid? Nucleic acids are basically large molecules where genetic information is stored. The nucleic acids are made of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made of a nitrogenous base, sugar with five carbon atoms and a phosphate group.
  5. What are the two types of Nucleic Acids? There are two types of nucleic acids:
    - Deoxyribonucleic acid AKA DNA
    - Ribonucleic acid AKA RNA
  6. What are Chromosomes? Where are they located? Chromosomes of a cell are located in the cell nucleus. They hold genetic information and are made of DNA.
  7. What is DNA?
    DNA is a nucleic acid that has specific genetic information for the development and function of ALL living things. It has two strands. Each strand is coded with a four-letter alphabet: A (adenine), T (thymine), C (cytosine), and G (guanine). These letters form complementary base-pairs: A only bonds with T, C only bonds with G. The three main functions of DNA are;
    - The long term storage of info
    - Holding the sequence of bases which will be interpreted and deciphered into RNA
    - Encode the sequence of amino acid to proteins, using the genetic code
  8. What is RNA?
    RNA is a much more difficult concept compared to DNA. Along with DNA and proteins, RNA is one of the three major biological macromolecules that are essential to all living things. Note: The flow of genetic information to a cell is from DNA to RNA to Proteins (Proteins are known as the “workhorses of a cell”). RNA is a nucleic acid and made of nucleotides. It is single-stranded and not double-stranded like DNA. In RNA, A bonds with U instead of T. One of RNA’s function is copying DNA’s code. It bonds to a strand of DNA by creating a sequence of the code’s complementary base pairs.
  9. What is Guided RNA?
    The real beauty of RNA is the complexity of it and the wide horizon of roles it actually has. One important type of RNA (especially when it comes to gene editing) is guide RNA. Guide RNA can locate any part of the DNA. This type of RNA can be programmed (which means that if scientists can identify what a particular DNA sequence looks like, they can program the gRNA to find that segment of DNA (target DNA) in any cell.

What is CRISPR-Cas9?

The discovery of CRISPR-Cas9 as a gene-editing method was revolutionary.
The process of CRISPR-Cas 9

Limitations of CRISPR

  1. Efficiency

What is Prime Editing?

Search-and-Replace Genome Editing System

How does Prime Editing work?

Importance of Prime Editing

Examples of Genetic Disorderslocated on each Chromosome

Ethics of Prime Editing

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16yo BCI Developer | Building Tools Necessary to Read + Write our Neural Code

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Mikael Haji

Mikael Haji

16yo BCI Developer | Building Tools Necessary to Read + Write our Neural Code

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